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Genetic Guidance for Therapy Selection
Melanomas are being analyzed for genetic abnormalities as these dictate the selection of therapy with specific inhibitors.
The MAPK pathway is most frequently mutated in melanoma. In addition, several other mechanisms exist for activation of this pathway.
1 - Smalley, K.S.M., Xiao, M., Villanueva, J., Nguyen, T.K., Flaherty, K.T., Letrero, R., Nathanson, K.L., Herlyn, M.: CRAF inhibition induces Bcl-2 dependent apoptosis in melanomas with non V600E BRAF mutations. Oncogene 28: 85-94, 2009. PMID18794803
2 - Smalley, K.S.M., Contractor, R., Nguyen, T.K., Xiao, M., Medinca, A., Edwards, R., Muthusamy, V., King, A.J., Flaherty, K.T., Bosenberg, M., Herlyn, M., Nathanson, K.L.: Identification of a novel sub-group of melanomas with kit/cyclin-dependent kinase-4 overexpression. Cancer Res. 68: 5743-5752, 2008. PMID18632627
3 - Smalley, K.S.M., Lioni, M., Palma, M.D., Xiao, M., Desai, B., Eghazi, S., Hansson, J., W, H., King, A.J., Flaherty, K.T., Herlyn, M., Nathanson, K.L.: Cyclin D1 mediates BRAF inhibitor resistance in a sub-set of BRAF-V600E mutated melanomas. Molec. Can. Ther: 7: 2876-2883, 2008. PMID18790768
4 - Vultur, A., Villanueva, J., Herlyn, M.: Targeting BRAF in advanced melanoma: A first step towards manageable disease. Clin. Cancer Res.17: 1658-1663, 2011. PMID 21447722
5 - Feng, Y., Barile, E., De, S.K., Stebbins, J.L., Cortez, A., Aza-Blanc, P., Villanueva, J., Herlyn [Heryln], M., Krajewski, S., Melecchia, M., Ronai, Z.A., Chiang, G.G.: Effective inhibition of melanoma by BI-69A11 is mediated by dual targeting of the AKT and NF-kB pathways. Pigm. Cell Mel. Res. 24: 703-713, 2011. PMID21592316
The microscope in the image belonged to William E. Horner, M.D., a collaborator with Caspar Wistar, M.D., in the early 1800s.
Dr. Horner, a lecturer at the University of Pennsylvania, was a pioneer of the use of microscopes in anatomical and medical research. He authored Special Anatomy and Histology, a seminal text on the subject.